How to Fix Random Shutdown on Desktop Computers
Recently I was trying to troubleshoot a problem a friend of mine had with his computer. When he was running his desktop computer, it would randomly shut down. No messages, no warning, just power down. His system was running Windows XP with all updates and security in place, so the cause was not immediately obvious.
After trying several things, including checking the BIOS settings, checking the Windows power settings and number of other configuration options, I finally just decided to open the computer and check the cables and PCI cards.
When I opened the system, I immediately saw a possible cause. Look at the picture below of the dust in the CPU fan and cooling element!
The picture was actually taken when I was half done cleaning the dust already… As you can imagine this amount of dust in the CPU fan and CPU cooling block will prevent proper air circulation and greatly limit the CPU cooling.
The result was that the CPU was overheating and the system just went on a thermal shutdown whenever it reached critical temperatures. This quite explains the seemingly random computer shutdown problems.
After cleaning the system on the inside, and putting it back together, we restarted the system. Not only did it make a lot less noise (the fan was not trying to run at maximum RPM anymore for cooling the CPU), but it never shutdown automatically after that!
So if you face similar random computer shutdowns, and your computer is either a little older or standing in a dusty environment, consider this cause. For notebooks this problem generally does not happen, as they gather less dust inside and have a little different cooling concept.
Monitor the CPU Temperature
If you want to make sure that CPU temperature problems are the cause of the random computer shutdown problem, you can try using a simple program that shows the core CPU temperature. For modern CPUs this will work fine. Real Temp from TechPowerUp is an example of such a program. Please note that for the best accuracy, it is important to calibrate the software properly.